reich-chemistry


Chemistry Chapter 1
Atoms
Molecules
scientific method
observation
hypothesis
experiments
scientific law
law of conservation of mass
theory
atomoic theory

Chapter 2
Scienfitic Notation
Rules for Scientific Notation (bigger than 1 less than 10 etc)
Sig Figs
8 rules for Zeros for Sig Figs
Sig Figs in addition and subtraction
Sig Figs in multiplication and division
SI Units
Converting Units
Unit Prefixes (tera, giga, mega, kilo, deci, centi, milli, micro, nano, pico, femto
Density: d=m/v
Using density as a conversion factor

Chapter 3
matter
atoms
molecules
states of matter: solid liquid gas
solids: crystalline and amorphous
Mixtures: pure substance vs mixture, elements and compounds
Heterogeneous vs homogeneous
Properties: physical vs chemical properties
Changes: physical vs chemical changes
separation: decanting, filtering, distillation
vocab: volatile
Energy: Units of energy
types of energy: chemical, kinetic, potential, electrical
Temperature: C and K scales, conversion C+273 = k
Heat capacity: Q=MCDT, Q= heat, M = mass, C= heat capacity, DT = change in temperature

Chapter 4
atoms
elements
Atomic theory
nuclear atom
JJ thompson
Plum Pudding model
Rutherford's gold foil experiment
Milikan Oil Drop Experiement
proton nuetron electron, know mass and charges, these are called sub atomic particles
Periodic Table:
chemical symbol, atomic number, atomic mass
Marie Curie
Metals vs non metals
metalloids
semi conductors
main group elements
transition metals
groups vs rows/periods
alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, noble gases
Ions: gaining or losing electrons, having charge
ions and the periodic table +1, +2, +3, +-4. -3, -2, -1, 0
Isotopes: same # of protons different number of neutrons therefor different atomic masses
Mass number is an average of differnt atomic masses in different percentages

Chapter 5
Law of constant composition
chemical formulas: elements and subscripts
use of parenthensis
atomic elements (noble gases, metals)
molecular elements: HINClBrOF
Molecular vs Ionic Compounds
Molecular: 2 or more non metals
Ionic: metal and a non-metal, aka cation and anion, aka 2 different atoms/groups come together because of opposite charges
Ionic Nomenclature:
alkali and alkali earth metal names, transition metal names with roman numerals, non metal names with endings changed to -ide.
Polyatomic ions
Formula Creation: symbols, charges, switcheroo, reduce

Naming Molecular compounds: prefix, element, prefix, element, change ending to -ide
Acid Nomencalture:
Binary Acids Vs Oxyacids
Binary: hydro-basename-ic acid
Oxyacids depends on polyatomic ending
for -ates it'spolyatomic name, change ending to ic acid
for -ites it's polyatomic name, change ending to -ous acid

Chapter 6
Chemical composition
grams to moles
moles to grams
moles to atoms (6.02e23)
atomic mass
molecular mass
Mass percent
Mass percent -> chemical formula
Chemical formula -> mass percent
empirical formulas

Chapter 7
evidence of a chemical reaction
chemical equations
balanced chemical equations
(s), (aq), (l), (g) subscripts
aqueous solutions
solubility rules
precipitation reactions
total ionic equations, net ionic equations
5 reaction types: addition, decomposition, combustions, single displacement, double displacement

Chapter 8: stoich
mole map
mole to mole conversions
molar ratios
mass-mass convertions (gram -> mole -> mole -> gram)
Limiting reagent, theoretical yield, percent yield
enthalpy: heat released, conversion factor ie 200kj/mol, negative values represent exothermic reactions, positive values represent endothermic reactions

Chapter 9:
quantum chem
bohr model
electromagnetic radiation
schrodinger
heisenberg
types of light
where light comes from according to bohr model
energy levels associated with bohr model
orbitals: s, p, d, f, know shapes
electron configurations: filling an orbital energy diagram, aufbau, hund's rule, pauli exclusion
Valence Electrons, group numbers --> valence electrons
periodic trends:
shielding
atomic radius, ionization energy,

Chapter 10
Bonding models
lewis dot theory
lewis dot structures
ionic compounds dots move frrom one element to the other resulting in positive and negative particles that attract
molecular compounds: elements share electrons to satisfy the octet rule
octet rule
double bonds
triple bonds
lewis dot exceptions
resonance
VSEPR (valence shell electron pair repulsion thoery)
aka 3d shapes of molecules
linear, trigonal planar, tetrahedral, trigonal pyramidol, bent
electronegativity: pull electrons from neighboring elements
polor bonds: electrons not shared equally
polar molecules: one side positive one side negative