Fossil Fuels


Kilometers are shorter than miles. Save gas, take your next trip in kilometers. ~George Carlin


Types:

Natural Gas

Coal

Petroleum

Natural Gas:

Natural gas is formed from the remains of plankton and other small water organisms such as algae. It forms over millions of years of the dead plankton and algae getting covered by layers of soil and adventually forming pockets of natural gas. Most natural gas pockets are found over deposits of petroleum, but can be found on there own. They form on the top of the petroleum deposits due to the fact that it has a lower density. Natural gas is mainly made up of methane, which is the main gas used after it is extracted and goes through refining. Other gases that are included in natural gas are ethane, propane, butane,pentane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium, and hydrogen sulfide. All of these gases are extracted too and used for different purposes, but methane is the main one used commercially because it is used in households for everything from heating to cooking.
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Coal: Coal is made up of organic material that has been compressed and heated over a long time. coal is made of dead plants. Coal is burned to generate steam to turn turbines. Coal is also used to help make steel, it is first turned into coke, which gives steel its strength. Nearly half of the United States energy comes from coal fired power plants. burning coal produces the most CO2 out of all fossil fuels, due to its overwhelming usage. The United ‍states digs up the most coal of any country on the planet.

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Petroleum
Comes out of the ground as crude oil. Crude oil is then taken and refined into many different materials. It is most often extracted from deep within the earth by use of drilling rigs. There is also oil sand deposits. Which are made up of clay, sand, dirt and a very sticky tar like oil. There are vast deposits around the world but they are very difficult to separate the sand from the oil efficiently. If scientists figure out a way for these deposits to be prossesced efficiently there would be a noticible increase in the worlds oil reserves.

Here is a sample list of products made out of petroleum

Solvents
Diesel fuel
Motor Oil
Bearing Grease
Ink
Floor Wax
Ballpoint Pens
Football Cleats
Upholstery
Sweaters
Boats
Insecticides
Bicycle Tires
Sports Car Bodies
Nail Polish
Fishing lures
Dresses
Tires
Golf Bags
Perfumes
Cassettes
Dishwasher parts
Tool Boxes
Shoe Polish
Motorcycle Helmet
Caulking
Petroleum Jelly
Transparent Tape
CD Player
Faucet Washers
Antiseptics
Clothesline
Curtains
Food Preservatives
Basketballs
Soap
Vitamin Capsules
Antihistamines
Purses
Shoes
Dashboards
Cortisone
Deodorant
Footballs
Putty
Dyes
Panty Hose
Refrigerant
Percolators
Life Jackets
Rubbing Alcohol
Linings
Skis
TV Cabinets
Shag Rugs
Electrician's Tape
Tool Racks
Car Battery Cases
Epoxy
Paint
Mops
Slacks
Insect Repellent
Oil Filters
Umbrellas
Yarn
Fertilizers
Hair Coloring
Roofing
Toilet Seats
Fishing Rods
Lipstick
Denture Adhesive
Linoleum
Ice Cube Trays
Synthetic Rubber
Speakers
Plastic Wood
Electric Blankets
Glycerin
Tennis Rackets
Rubber Cement
Fishing Boots
Dice
Nylon Rope
Candles
Trash Bags
House Paint
Water Pipes
Hand Lotion
Roller Skates
Surf Boards
Shampoo
Wheels
Paint Rollers
Shower Curtains
Guitar Strings
Luggage
Aspirin
Safety Glasses
Antifreeze
Football Helmets
Awnings
Eyeglasses
Clothes
Toothbrushes
Ice Chests
Footballs
Combs
CD's & DVD's
Paint Brushes
Detergents
Vaporizers
Balloons
Sun Glasses
Tents
Heart Valves
Crayons
Parachutes
Telephones
Enamel
Pillows
Dishes
Cameras
Anesthetics
Artificial Turf
Artificial limbs
Bandages
Dentures
Model Cars
Folding Doors
Hair Curlers
Cold cream
Movie film
Soft Contact lenses
Drinking Cups
Fan Belts
Car Enamel
Hand cream
Ammonia
Refrigerators
Golf Balls
Toothpaste
Gasoline
http://www.ranken-energy.com/Products%20from%20Petroleum.htm

So, pretty much anything you do you are using a petroleum product.


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Problem at Hand:
Petroleum Products are really useful and work well, but many people dont like them because they pollute the air and create dangerous greenhouses gasses, that lead to global warming, or so i am told. Also oil spills can cause alot of damage because they kill stuff. fish cant live in oil and birds eat oil and die. Baby seals turn from white to black and get eaten by polar bears.

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What Are People Doing?
Driving really slow unattractive cars called hybrids.
Using alternative forms of energy ie, wind (wind farms) water (dams) solar (solar panels)
Buying EnergyStar appliances and lights.


This information was borrowed from wikipedia. (I have no idea how to type like that)
Generally, the chemical equation for stoichiometric burning of hydrocarbon in oxygen is
C_xH_y + left( x + frac{y}{4} right) O_2 rightarrow ; xCO_2 + left( frac{y}{2} right) H_2O
C_xH_y + left( x + frac{y}{4} right) O_2 rightarrow ; xCO_2 + left( frac{y}{2} right) H_2O
For example, the burning of propane is
C_3H_8 + 5O_2 rightarrow ; 3CO_2 + 4H_2O
C_3H_8 + 5O_2 rightarrow ; 3CO_2 + 4H_2O
Generally, the chemical equation for stoichiometric incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon in oxygen is as follows:
left( z right) C_xH_y + left( z left(frac{x}{2} + frac{y}{4} right) right) O_2 rightarrow ; z cdot xCO + left( frac{z cdot y}{2} right) H_2O
left( z right) C_xH_y + left( z left(frac{x}{2} + frac{y}{4} right) right) O_2 rightarrow ; z cdot xCO + left( frac{z cdot y}{2} right) H_2O
For example, the incomplete combustion of propane is:
2C_3H_8 + 7O_2 rightarrow ; 2C + 2CO + 8H_2O + 2CO_2
2C_3H_8 + 7O_2 rightarrow ; 2C + 2CO + 8H_2O + 2CO_2
The simple word equation for the combustion of a hydrocarbon in oxygen is:
textrm{Fuel} + textrm{Oxygen} rightarrow ; textrm{Heat} + textrm{Water} + textrm{Carbon dioxide}
textrm{Fuel} + textrm{Oxygen} rightarrow ; textrm{Heat} + textrm{Water} + textrm{Carbon dioxide}
If the combustion takes place using air as the oxygen source, the nitrogen can be added to the equation,as and although it does not react, to show the composition of the flue gas:
C_xH_y + left( x+ frac{y}{4} right) O_2 + 3.76 left( x+ frac{y}{4} right) N_2 rightarrow ; xCO_2 + left( frac{y}{2} right) H_2O + 3.76 left( x + frac{y}{4} right) N_2
C_xH_y + left( x+ frac{y}{4} right) O_2 + 3.76 left( x+ frac{y}{4} right) N_2 rightarrow ; xCO_2 + left( frac{y}{2} right) H_2O + 3.76 left( x + frac{y}{4} right) N_2
For example, the burning of propane is:
C_3H_8 + 5O_2 + 18.8N_2 rightarrow ; 3CO_2 + 4H_2O + 18.8N_2
C_3H_8 + 5O_2 + 18.8N_2 rightarrow ; 3CO_2 + 4H_2O + 18.8N_2
The simple word equation for this type of combustion is hydrocarbon in air:
textrm{Fuel} + textrm{Air} rightarrow ; textrm{Heat} + textrm{Water} + textrm{Carbon dioxide} + textrm{Nitrogen}
textrm{Fuel} + textrm{Air} rightarrow ; textrm{Heat} + textrm{Water} + textrm{Carbon dioxide} + textrm{Nitrogen}

For every one gallon of gas burned 19 pounds of CO2 is relesased into the atmosphere.

Drilling in Alaska for Oil
In a Nutshell
Yes
No
  1. The proceeds from drilling could dramatically lower the price of oil, leading to another economic boom.
  2. It would lessen our dependence on foreign oil, especially in the Middle East.
  3. Drilling could easily be done without disrupting the refuge or damaging the environment.
  4. It would dramatically help the economy and the people of Alaska.
  5. The drilling and land development would create hundreds of thousands of jobs.
  6. Alternative energy sources are the future, but for right now they're too expensive and underdeveloped; oil from ANWR could help fuel the world economy in the meantime.
  7. Every dollar we spend on oil from the Middle East, Russia, and Venezuela only strengthens the communists and terrorists trying to harm the United States.
  1. It takes the focus off the real cause of the oil shortage -- our excessive consumption.
  2. A wildlife refuge could be disturbed by humans, with animal lives possibly changed in the process.
  3. The drilling may not yield much of anything.
  4. It could take years or decades before any significant amount of oil is ready for use.
  5. The reserve can be saved as a last resort decades from now when we've exhausted other supplies.
The need for oil is extreme in the United States because everything we do needs oil. The fact that we need to depend on other countries for one of our most important resources is killing our country both economically and warfare wise. We are over in the middle east fighting and some of the fighting could be changed if we didnt relay so much on the conutries over there for oil. Also they can jack up the prices on us because they know we need the oil to survive as a country in whole. Basically we need to just stop listening to environmentalists and just start drilling even if it is a wildlife refugee. Our lives are more important than some wildlifes lives even though they are important too but they can still be saved and not all have to die.

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Im tired of my tax dollars going to Arab leaders who support schools that teach people how to drive airplanes into our buildings. Every American will understand the link between national security and energy independence. This is where the presidential bully pulpit is essential." Senator John Kerry
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Problems with Drilling
Wildlife will have affects on it and accidents can happen causing oil spills and death to some animals. Animals normal lives will change such as the Bowhead whales have changed their migration patterns to avoid offshore seismic exploration and some polar bear dens have been disturbed. Caribou herds shifted their calving areas to find vegetation and avoid insects. This will affect the way they used to live and some will die due too it but most will just adapt and change normal routines. Predators such as arctic foxes, ravens and gulls have thrived, feeding on garbage around the oil fields, but they also prey on rarer and in some cases endangered birds.
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Crude Oil Vs. Alternative Energy

Crude oil is the top dog now because it is what we have known for so long and has been the main energy source for 100s of years. It has been what we have known as the way to run our everyday lives from our cars too making breakfast in the morning. Now these new energy sources are coming in like solar and wind powered. Although they are better for the environment and last forever, oil is more convient. Most houses in the U.S. run off of oil and the cars we drive, they dont run off solar or wind power. The change is just too complicated and unconvient for most people and many dont wanna change. Also more costly at first even though they say you make your money back by using solar energy but thats after years, what about the money you gotta spend to change your whole houses energy source. When oil is still abundent and not run out yet alot of people arent worried about switching their houses to save the environment and money in the long run.
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Basically what it come down too. Oil is better!