1700-1800

Isaac Newton
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(January 4, 1643 – March 31, 1727)
England
Newton was born in a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire.He was born three months after his father had died.When he was three years old his mother remarried and left him with his maternal grandmother.At the age of 12 he went to school at the King’s School, Grantham.He gained a degree from Trinity College in 1665
Newton’s big contribution was his three laws of motion.Newton’s first law says that an object at rest stays unless acted on by another force.His second law says that and applied force on an object equals the rate of change of its momentum with time.His third law says that every force has an equal and opposite reaction force.

Henry Cavendish
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(October 10, 1731 – February 24, 1810)
France
At the age of 11 he started attending Peter Newcome’s school in Hackney.At the age of 19 he entered the University of Cambridge but didn’t graduate.
He is called a pneumatic chemist.He combined metals and strong acids to make hydrogen gas.He then combined it with oxygen to show that it formed water.He also correctly derived the composition of air.He said it was one part oxygen and 4 parts nitrogen.


James Watts
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(January 19, 1736 – August 25, 1819)
Scotland
He was born into a wealthy and educated family.When he was 18 his mother died and his father became sickly.He married twice and had 6 children.His brother was shipwrecked when he was 17 years old.
He realized how to improve the steam engine.He found out that a volume of steam 3 or 4 times the volume of the cylinder was required to move the piston.His solution was to keep the piston the same temperature as the steam to make it more efficient. Also he further improved the engine by condensing the steam outside the piston.